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AMA Help (10th Edition)

Reference Citation Examples

Electronic articles and periodicals
General format (electronic)

Author(s).  Title.  Journal Name [using National Library of medicine abbreviations].  Year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages [if provided].  URL [provide the URL in this field; no need to use "URL:" preceding it].  Published [date].  Uploaded [date].  Accessed [date].

Article from electronic journal (when DOI is not available)

Duchin JS.  Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis?  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.  2004;158(2):106-107.  Accessed June 1, 2004.

Gore D, Haji SA, Balashanmugam A, et al.  Light and electron microscopy of macular corneal dystrophy: a case study.  Digit J Ophthalmol.  2004;10.  Accessed December 6, 2005.  

Article from electronic journal (when DOI is available)

​Smeeth L, Ilife S.  Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  2002;(2):CD001054.  doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

Article from newspaper

​Weiss R.  The promise of precision prescriptions.  Washington Post.  June 24, 2000:A1.  Accessed October 10, 2001.

Online database
Author(s).  Title of the database [database online].  Publisher's location (city, state, or country): publisher's name; year of publication and/or last update.  URL.  Accessed [date].
PDQ:NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database.  Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996.  Updated December 18, 2001.  Accessed April 29, 2004.


Articles and periodicals in print
General format (print)

Author(s).  Article title.  Journal Name (National Library of medicine abbreviations -this applied to journals and NOT newspapers).  Year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages.

Journal article Hyduk A, Croft JB, Ayala C, Zheng K, Zheng Z-J, Mensah GA.  Pulmonary hypertension surveillance-United States, 1980-2002.  MMWR Surveill Summ.  2005;54(5):1-28.

Newspaper article

​Wolfe W.  State's mail-order drug plan launched.  Minneapolis Star Tribune.  May 14, 2004:1B.  

Magazine article Doran D.  BIM and the eco-footprint.  Chartered Institute of Architectural Technologists.  2013;(107):22-24.

Article with Six or more authors Rainier S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al.  Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis.  Arch Neurol.  2004;61(7):1025-1029.

One author Sacks O.  Uncle Tungsten.  New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf; 2001.
Two authors

​Modlin J, Jenkins P.  Decision Analysis in Planning for a Polio Outbreak in the United States.  San Francisco, CA: Pediatric Academic Societies; 2004.

More than six authors

Simon LS, Lipman AG, Jacox AK, et al.  Pain in Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Juvenile Chronic Arthritis.  2nd ed.  Glenview, IL: American Pain Society; 2002.

Corporate authors

World Health Organization.  World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risk, Promoting Healthy Life.  Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

Editor Villarreal Fj, ed.  Interstitial Fibrosis in Heart Failure.  New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2005.  Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine.

Balducci L, Extermann M, eds.  Biological Basis of Geriatric Oncology.  New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2005.  Rosen ST, ed.  Cancer Treatment and Research, vol 124.

Electronic version of print book (ebook)

Field MJ, Boat TF, eds. Safe and Effective Medicines for Children: Pediatric Studies Conducted Under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act and the Pediatric Research Equity Act. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; 2012. Accessed January 28, 2013.

Multivolume work
(use arabic numerals for volume number if the work cited includes more than 1 volume)

US Department of Health and Human Services.  Understanding and Improving Health and Objectives for Improving Health.  Vol 1.  2nd ed.  Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2000.  

Field Manual 4-02.17: Preventive Medicine Services*.  Washington, DC: US Dept of the Army; 2000.

*Note: The volume number does not need to be repeated in its customary place after the year if it is included in the book's title.

Encyclopedia article
(encyclopedia article and book chapter follow same format)

Wallace RJ Jr, Griffith DE. Antimycobacterial agents. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005:946.

Book chapter
(When citing a chapter of a book, capitalize as for a journal article title; do not use quotation marks.  Inclusive page numbers of the chapter should be given)

Solensky R.  Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin.  In: Lockey P, ed.  Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy.  3rd ed.  New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.


Bergeron C, Lowe J.  Frontotemporoal degeneration: introduction.  In: Dickson DW, ed.  Neurodegeneration: The Molecular Pathology of Dementia and Movement Disorders.  Basel, Switzerland: ISN Neuropath Press; 2003:342-348.


Tangarorang G, Kerins G, Besdine R.  Clinical approach to the older patient: an overview.  In: Cassel C, Leipzig R, Cohen H, Larson E, Meier D, eds.  Geriatric Medicine.  New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2003:149-162. 


Complete Data.  A complete reference to a print book includes the following:
1.  Authors' surnames and first and middle initials
2.  Chapter title (when cited)
3.  Surname and first and middle initials of book authors or editors (or translator, if any)
4.  Title of book and subtitle, if any
5.  Volume number and volume title, when there is more than 1 volume
6.  Edition number (do not indicate first edition)
7.  Place of publication 
8.  Name of publisher
9.  Year of copyright 
10.  Page numbers, when specific pages are cited

Audiotapes, Videotapes, DVDs

Moyers B.  On Our Own Terms: Moyers on Dying [videotape].  New York, NY: Thirteen/WNET; 2000.


Acland RD.  Acland's DVD Atlas of Human Anatomy [DVD].  Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003.

Transcript of Radio or Television Broadcast

Mental illness in children-part 1 [transcript].  Morning Edition.  National Public Radio.  September 22, 2003.

Shutting out Tourette's syndrome [transcript].  60 minutes.  CBS television.  January 17, 2005.


American Medical Association. (2007). 

General format (website)

Sullivan D.  Major search engines and directories.  SearchEngineWatch Web site.  Updated April 28, 2004.  Accessed December 6, 2005.

Article from newspaper, magazine or website

Weiss R.  The promise of precision prescriptions.  Washington Post.  June 24, 2000:A1.  Accessed October 10, 2001.

Journal article from open website

Gore D, Haji SA, Balashanmugam A, et al.  Light and electron microscopy of macular corneal dystrophy: a case study.  Digit J Ophthalmol.  2004;10.  Accessed December 6, 2005.

​In citing data from a Web site, include the following elements, if available, in the order shown:

Author(s), if given (often, no authors are given).  Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site).  Name of the Web site.  URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication].  Published [date].  Updated [date].  Accessed [date].

Government and Organization Reports

Government/Organization Reports

These are treated much like electronic journal and book references: use journal style for articles and book style for monographs.  Note: As with electronic journal references, of the dates published, updated, and accessed, often only the accessed date will be available.

Jacob Siegel; Administration on Aging.  Aging into the 21st century.  Published May 31, 1996.  Accessed December 6, 2005.

World Medical Association.  Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.  Updated June 10, 2002.  Accessed February 26, 2004. 

American Medical Association. (2007). AMA Manual of Style.

Minimum Acceptable Data for References

The following is an excerpt from the AMA Manual of Style (AMA, 2007, pg. 43).

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