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DNP Scholarly Project

PICO(T) for Clinical Questions

Healthcare professionals sometimes use the PICO or PICOT format to develop keywords for searching of clinical questions where:

  • - Patient or Population or Problem
  • I - Intervention or prognostic factor of interest
  • C - Comparison to intervention
  • O - Outcome of interest
  • T - Time (sometimes included)

For more information on Evidence-Based Practice and using PICO to develop a clinical research question, please read: 

Asking the compelling question in M. Godshall (2019). Fast fact for evidence-based practice: Implementing EBP in a nutshell. Springer Publishing Company.

Forming a Clinical Question

Holly, C. (2019). Practice-based scholarly inquiry and the DNP project (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing Company.

Bermudez, N. (2021). Formulating well-written clinical practice questions and research questions. Nursing & Health Sciences Research Journal, 4(1),


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