In-text citations follow the author-date citation system. Each citation has two parts (APA, 2020, p. 261-63):
- a brief in-text citation comprised of, at minimum, the author(s) names, and the year of publication, and
- a corresponding reference list entry.
In-text citations follow two basic formats:
- Parenthetical - where the author's name and year of publication appear in parentheses, separated by a comma. When a parenthetical citation is at the end of a sentence, the period or other punctuation appears outside the closing parenthesis.
- Narrative - where the author's name and year of publication are included as part of the text
- Please note that only the year appears in the in-text citation entry. A page or paragraph number will always go at the end of the quotation or paraphrase in parentheses.
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000