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APA Help (7th Edition)

Writing an APA Style Reference When Information Is Missing

Missing
element

Solution

Template

Reference list entry

In-text citation

Nothing—all
elements are present

Provide the author, date, title, and source of the work.

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

(Author, year)

Author (year)

Author

Provide the title, date, and source.

Title. (Date). Source.

(Title, year)

Title (year)

Date

Provide the author, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the title and source.

Author. (n.d.). Title. Source.

(Author, n.d.)

Author (n.d.)

Title

Provide the author and date, describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the source.

Author. (Date). [Description of work]. Source.

(Author, year)

Author (year)

Author and
date

Provide the title, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the source.

Title. (n.d.). Source.

(Title, n.d.)

Title (n.d.)

Author and
title

Describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the date and source.

[Description of work]. (Date). Source.

([Description of work], year)

[Description of work] (year)

Date and title

Provide the author, write “n.d.” for “no date,” describe the work in square brackets, and then provide
the source.

Author. (n.d.). [Description of work]. Source.

(Author, n.d.)

Author (n.d.)

Author, date,
and title

Describe the work in square brackets, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the source.

[Description of work]. (n.d.). Source.

([Description of work], n.d.)

[Description of work] (n.d.)

Source

Cite as a personal communication or find another work to cite (see the Publication Manual for more information).

No reference list entry

(C. C. Communicator, personal communication, month day, year)

C. C. Communicator (personal communication, month day, year)

From "How to Create a Reference When Information is Missing," by American Psychological Association, 2020, Publication Manual of the

American Psychological Association (7th ed.), p. 284 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000). Copyright 2020 by the American

Psychological Association.  More information on creating a reference when information is missing is available at

https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/missing-information

Missing Information Examples

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