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APA Help (7th Edition)

Electronic Article and Periodical Examples

Electronic articles and periodicals
General format (electronic)

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article: Capitalize the first word in the subtitle also. Title of

Journal, Volume number(Issue number), page numbers. DOI or URL

Article from library database or electronic journal (when DOI is not available)

Longaretti, L., & Wilson, J. (2006). The impact of perceptions on conflict management. Educational

Research Quarterly29(4), 3-15.

Article from library database or electronic journal (when DOI is available)

Morio, H., & Bushholtz, C. (2008). How anonymous are you online? Examining online social

behaviors from a cross-cultural perspective. Al & Society23(2), 297-307.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00146-007-0143-0

Article from newspaper or magazine

Dockterman, E. (2019, March 8). Who are the aliens in Captain Marvel? Everything to know about the Krees and

Skrulls. Time. https://time.com/5537334/captain-marvel-aliens-kree-skrull/

  • When retrieving an online article from a website rather than a database, list the URL. This rule applies to online reference works as well.  With the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, it is no longer necessary to include "Retrieved from" prior to a URL, and hyperlinks can remain active (APA, 2020, p. 299).
  • Articles cited from an academic database that do not have a DOI should be cited as a print resource, with the entry ending after the page range.
  • Articles in the databases Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and UpToDate have specific reference entry requirements.  See examples 10.13 and 10.14 for examples of citing from these databases (APA, 2020, p. 319).
  • URLs in a reference entry should link directly to the cited work, and it is acceptable to use the word processors default settings for hyperlinks (underlined blue text) or plain text, which is not underlined   (APA, 2020, p. 298-299).
  • Always include the issue number (in parentheses) following the italicized volume number for periodicals with issue numbers, and include the page range of the article following a comma. For example, an article on page 33-40 of issue 10 in volume 14 would be entered into a reference entry as 14(10), 33-40.
  • See section 10.1 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) for more examples of Periodical reference list entries.

 

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Print Articles and Periodicals Examples

Articles and periodicals in print
General format (print)

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article: Capital letter also for

subtitle. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), page numbers.

Journal article without a DOI from most academic research databases or in print

Wood, S. N., & Quackenbush, K. (2001). The sorcerer's stone: A touchstone for readers of all ages. English

Journal, 90(3), 97-103.

Newspaper article

Curwen, T. (2011, August 9). Calligraphers still going against type.  Los Angeles Times, A1, A8.

Magazine article

Yeoman, B. (September-October 2011). Facing the future. Audubon, 64-69, 86-87.

Book review

Wood, J. (2004, November 28). Acts of devotion [Review of the book

Gilead, by Marilynne Robinson]. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/28/books/arts/acts-

of-devotion.html

Unknown author

Education in America and Britain: Learning lessons from private

schools. (2009, July 2). Economist, 20-21.

Article with 21 or more authors

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, Y.,

Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A.,

…Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological

Society, 77(3), 437-471. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2

  • For sources with 2-20 authors, use an ampersand (&) before the final name [Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C.] (APA, 2020, p. 286)
  • For sources with 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors and then an ellipsis (...), without an ampersand.  Add the last author's name after the ellipsis [sample above] (APA, 2020, p. 286)
  • Publisher location information is no longer required for print sources (APA, 2020, p.295).
  • See section 10.1 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) for more examples of Periodical reference list entries.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Book Examples

Books
General format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for

subtitle. Publisher.

One author

Pinney, T. (2005). History of wine in America: From prohibition to the present. University of California     

Press.

Two authors

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for

journal publication. American Psychological Association.

Corporate authors

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th

ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Editors

Donohue, J. J., & Esposito, J. L. (Eds.). (2007). Islam in transition: Muslim

perspectives. Oxford University Press.

Electronic version of print book (ebook)

Verrill, A. H. (1916). Marooned in the forest: The story of a primitive fight for life.

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001029608

Multivolume work

Ford, B. (Ed.). (1988-1991). The Cambridge guide to the arts in

Britian (Vols. 1-9). Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary, Encyclopedia, thesaurus entry with a group author

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.) Dictionary. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved October 29, 2019, from

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dictionary

Book chapter

Konishi, S. (2011). Representing Aboriginal masculinity in Howard's

Australia. In R.L. Jackson II and M. Balaji (Eds.). Masculinities

and manhood (pp.161-185). University of Illinois Press.

Essay or chapter in an anthology or edited book

Porter, K. A. (1995). The grave. In S. Mee (Ed.), Downhome: An anthology

of Southern women writers (pp.461-67). Harcourt, Brace.

  • If the author and publisher are the same person or organization, leave the publisher out of the source portion of the reference entry.  See the "Corporate authors" example.
  • Only Publisher Name is needed for the citation, not city or location of the publisher.
  • eBooks cited from an academic database that do not have a DOI should be cited as a print resource, with the entry ending after the Publisher.
  • For online references that are continuously updated and older versions are not archived, use "n.d." as the publication year and include a retrieval date.  See the "Dictionary, encyclopedia, thesaurus entry with a group author" example.
  • When citing from an ebook or a chapter in an ebook, the format, platform, or device is not included in the reference entry (APA, 2020, pp.321, 326).
  • See section 10.2 and 10.3 for more examples of Book and Reference Work entries.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Audio Visual Material Examples

Audio and Visual
General Format 

Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of work [Medium /Type].

Production Company/Publisher.

Writer1, W. (Writer), Writer2, W. (Writer), & Director, D. (Director). (Date). Title of episode (Season

Number., Episode Number) [Description]. In P. Producer (Producer/Executive Producer). Title of

series. Production Company.

Podcast

Meraji, S. M., & Demby, G. (Hosts). (2016–present). Code switch [Audio podcast]. National Public

Radio. https://www.npr.org/podcasts/510312/codeswitch

Episode in a podcast, tv show, etc.

Visser, B. (Writer), Adams, N. (Writer), Masters, L. (Writer), & Dameron, M. (Director). (2021). Curious

cuts (Episode 1) [Course video]. In J. Seldera, D. O'Brien (Producers), Anatomy of a Mystery.

West Coast University Innovation Lab.

Film/Motion picture

Capra, F. (Director). (1946). It’s a wonderful life [Film].

Radio-Keith-Orpheum (RKO) Pictures.

YouTube video or other

streaming video

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8 

PowerPoint slides or

lecture notes on a

classroom learning

management system

Instructor, I. I. (Year). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas. https://canvas.westcoastuniversity.edu
  • When citing PowerPoint slides or lecture notes from a learning management system (Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Canvas, etc.) provide the name of the site and login URL.
  • See Section 8.8 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) for more information on citing from a classroom or intranet source.
  • Provide the span of years during which the podcast aired in the date element of the reference.
  • List the host(s) of the podcast episode as the author. Alternatively, provide the executive producers, if known. In either case, include their role in parentheses.
  • Provide the specific date on which the podcast episode first aired.
  • Provide the episode number after the episode title in parentheses. If the podcast does not number episodes, omit the episode number from the reference. Do not italicize the episode title or the episode number.
  • Specify the type of podcast episode in square brackets, for example: [Audio podcast episode], [Video podcast episode].
  • Write the word “In” and then the title of the podcast in italics.
  • In general, end the reference with the URL of the episode. If the URL of the podcast episode is unknown (e.g., if accessed via an app), omit the URL from the reference.
  • See Sections10.12-10.14 for more information and examples of reference entries from audiovisual media

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). 

https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Website Examples

Websites
General format (website)

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the work. Site Name. URL

Article from a news website (not related to a newspaper or magazine)

Zaugg, J. & Peng, J. (2019, November 5). China approves seaweed-based Alzheimer's

drug. It's the first new one in 17 years. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/

11/03/health/china-alzheimers-drug-intl-hnk-scli/index.html

Article from  a website with a group author (no date or same date)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.-a.). Campylobacter

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

https://www.cdc.gov/campylobacter/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.-b.). Salmonella

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/index.html

Article from  a website with a group author

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, August 20). Chicken and food

poisoning. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/chicken.html

  • Use the webpages and websites category if and only if the entry does not fit better into another category (APA, 2020, pp. 282, 350).
  • When the author and site name is the same, do not include the site name in the source portion of the entry.
  • Provide a retrieval date when citing a work that is likely to change over time.
  • When citing multiple works by the same author with the same publication date, add a lowercase letter following the year to both the in-text and reference citation. Year-only publications go before more specific dates. When the publication date is identical, alphabetize the references by the title. See section 9.47 for more information on ordering works with the same author and date
  • See section 10.16 for more information and examples of reference entries from webpages and websites.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Government and Organizational Report Examples

Government and Organization Reports
Corporate Author, Government Report

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.(2014). Managing asthma:

A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 14-2650). U.S. Department of Health

and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/all-publications-and-resources/managing-asthma-guide-

schools-2014-edition

  • Use the most specific agency as the authors in the reference.  Overarching agencies are listed in the source element as the publisher.  Do not repeat the authoring agency in the source element of the reference (APA, 2020, p. 288).

  • See Sections 9.11 and 10.4 for more information and examples of reference entries for government reports and other forms of grey literature.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

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